The Central Bohemian Region lies in the centre of Bohemia. Its area, number of municipalities, and population make it the largest Region of the Czech Republic. The Region's area (10,928 km2 as of 31 December 2018) covered almost 14 % of the republic area and was about two times larger than the average area of a region in the Czech Republic. The Central Bohemian Region surrounds the Capital City of Prague from all sides and borders almost all the Regions of Bohemia. The exceptions are Karlovarský Region and Moravian Regions. It has relatively little broken terrain. The north and the east are flat; highlands prevail in the south and the southwest. The highest point of the territory is the peak called Tok (altitude 865 m) in the Brdy Mountains in the Příbram District; the lowest point is the riverbed of the Labe River (altitude 153 m) in the Mělník District.

The Region divides into 12 districts with 10 district authority municipalities. By area, the largest is the Příbram District (14.3% of the Region's area); the smallest is the Praha-západ District (5.3% of the Region's area). As of 1 January 2003, when the state administration reform came into force, district authorities were cancelled; however, districts as territorial units did not cease to exist. At the same time, territorial districts of municipalities with the authorised municipal authority of the 2nd level and administrative districts of municipalities with extended powers of the 3rd level were established. In the Central Bohemian Region, 26 organisational communities of municipalities with vast powers differ significantly in their size. The largest area is the Rakovník administrative district (8.2% of the Region's area), while the smallest is the Neratovice administrative district (1.0%).

In 2018, there were 1 144 municipalities in the Region. The highest number of municipalities is concentrated in the Mladá Boleslav District and the Příbram District (120 municipalities each), while the lowest number of municipalities is in the Mělník District (69). As for administrative districts of municipalities with extended powers, it is the Mladá Boleslav administrative district which dominates as it comprises 98 municipalities; on the contrary, the Lysá nad Labem administrative district consists of 9 municipalities only. The Region is characterised by a high representation of municipalities with a population of up to two thousand (1 028 municipalities). 40.8 % of the population lives in these municipalities. Eighty-four municipalities received the status of a town; Kladno and Mladá Boleslav are also statutory towns. The share of the urban population in the total population of the Region was 52.2 %; it was the lowest in the whole Czech Republic. The five largest towns in the Region include Kladno, Mladá Boleslav, Příbram, Kolín and Kutná Hora. The Central Bohemian Region, as the only Region, has no regional authority town. The regional authority thus seats in the Capital City of Prague.

With its population of 1,369,332 inhabitants as of 31 December 2018, the Region became the most populous Region in the Czech Republic. The most populated district of the Central Bohemian Region was the Praha-východ District (180,945 inhabitants); over 100,000 inhabitants also lived in the Kladno District, the Praha-západ District, the Mladá Boleslav District, the Příbram District, the Mělník District and Kolín District. On the other hand, the least populated was the Rakovník District, with 55,565 inhabitants. The population density was the highest in the Praha-západ District, the Praha-východ District, and the Kladno District (over 200 inhabitants per km2). All these districts have strong socio-economic ties with Prague and constitute, to some extent, the metropolitan background of the Capital City. The lowest population density was reported in the Rakovník District and the Benešov District, where it did not exceed 70 inhabitants per km2.

Demographic development of the Region started to distinctively change in the second half of the 1990 s, mainly thanks to the construction of satellite settlements in the environs of the City of Prague. The population has constantly been increasing (since 1997), primarily internal migration contributing to the population increase. A significant amount of mainly young people moved into the Region, setting up their families there due to the excellent location of the Region. Thanks to that, the natural decrease has gradually dropped and starting in 2006 more children are born in the Region than there are deaths. The Region was the youngest in the Czech Republic, with an average population of 41.2 years in 2018. Nevertheless, a nationwide trend of population ageing affected the Region, and from 2015, persons aged 65+ years started to prevail in their number over children aged up to 14 years. The only Districts in the Region (as well as within the entire Czech Republic) in which children still outnumber senior citizens are the Praha-východ District and the Praha-západ District.

What significantly influences its economic characteristic is the Region's location. Close ties with the Capital City and dense transportation network make the area of the Region very favourable. The Region is an essential source of the labour force for Prague; it supplements Prague's industry, supplies Prague with food, and provides Prague with its recreation potential. The Central Bohemian Region has the second densest (after Prague) and the most overloaded transport network in the Czech Republic. Central railway and road transit networks lead in a historical radial arrangement over the territory of the Region to the Capital City. Water transport is also present in the Region. The only waterway in the Czech Republic for internal and international transport is the Labsko-vltavská (Labe-Vltava) waterway, with about 75 % of passing through the Region's area. 

Developed agricultural and industrial production is characteristic of the Central Bohemian Region. Agricultural production profits from excellent natural conditions in the north-eastern part of the Region. The Region is great at crop production, growing wheat, barley, and beet, and growing fruits, vegetables, and flowers in parts close to towns. The following belong to the critical industries in the Region: engineering, chemical industry, and food industry. ŠKODA AUTO, JSC Mladá Boleslav (car manufacturer) is an enterprise of national importance, manufacturing small cars in TPCA Czech, Ltd. Kolín carries on. There are also several important enterprises from the following industries: the glass industry, ceramics manufacture, and printing industry. Traditional industrial branches undergo a recession – it applies to coal mining, steel, and leather manufacturing industries.

Economic activity and employment of the population, their average wages, and the income of households of the Central Bohemian Region increase over a long period and within the Czech Republic, they rank the second highest (with the Hl. m. Praha Region, i.e. the City of Prague, ranking first). Since the beginning of the 1990 s, the number employed in the primary (agriculture, forestry, and fishing) and secondary (industry and construction) sectors has been decreasing. However, in the long-term, employment in services (tertiary) is increasing; more than six out of ten employed in the Region are working there, above the nationwide average.

Unemployment is lower than the national average in the long term. As of 31 December 2018, the share of unemployed persons in the Region was 2.64 %. However, there are differences in unemployment within the Region, again because of the influence of the short distance from Prague. The highest rate was reported for the Příbram District (3.68 %) and the lowest for the Praha-východ District (1.13%), which was also the lowest share of the unemployed among districts of the Czech Republic.

The gross domestic product per capita in the Central Bohemian Region in 2018 was 90.5 % of the average GDP per capita of the Czech Republic, which ranked the Region 3rd within all the regions of the CR. It is – besides the results of the car industry – markedly influenced by the strategically favourable location of the Region, i.e., the fact that it is surrounding the capital.

On the territory of the Central Bohemian Region, there are many important and valuable historical sights and several protected landscape areas. The most significant concentration of historical buildings and monuments is in the town of Kutná Hora. For example, the Cathedral of St Barbara, Italian Court, Hrádek – Czech Museum of Silver and medieval silver mine, Ossuary, and Cathedral of the Assumption of Our Lady and St. John the Baptist in Sedlec, which was added to Unesco's World Heritage List. This list contains, together with the City of Prague also, a chateau and park in Průhonice, which belongs to the largest parks in the Czech Republic and is one of the most frequently visited places in the neighbourhood of Prague. The Czech list of urban conservation areas of Central Bohemia contains, besides the town of Kutná Hora, only the city of Kolín; there are 34 urban conservation zones in the Region and 33 national cultural monuments. The most famous castles are Karlštejn and Točník in the Beroun area, Křivoklát in the Rakovník area, Český Šternberk in the Benešov area, and Kokořín in the Mělník area. The most interesting castle ruins are Žebrák in the Beroun area and Okoř in the Praha-západ District. The most important chateaux are Konopiště in the Benešov area, Žleby and Kačina in the Kutná Hora area, Loučeň in the Nymburk area, Lány in the Rakovník area, castles Mělník and Nelahozeves in Mělník area. One of the most important places of pilgrimage in Bohemia is Svatá Hora in the town of Příbram. Among the most frequently visited museums in the Region are: the ŠKODA Museum in Mladá Boleslav, the Mining Museum in Příbram, and the Czech Museum of Silver in Kutná Hora; monuments are the Lidice Memorial near the town of Kladno. The most valuable natural area of the Region is the Křivoklátsko protected landscape area, which is one of the Biosphere Reserves UNESCO. Other important areas are Český kras (the Bohemian Karst) protected landscape area, Český ráj (the Bohemian Paradise), Blaník and Kokořínsko (the area of a Czech well-known poet Karel Hynek Mácha). As of 1 January 2016, a new protected landscape area of Brdy was established on the territory of an abolished Brdy military district. The territory of the former Brdy military district was re-allocated to adjacent municipalities of the Central Bohemian Region and the Plzeňský Region; thus, the total area of the Central Bohemian Region decreased by 87.9 km2 less compared to the status as at the end of the year 2015.

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